Der Sturm: Roman (Fischer HC) (German Edition)
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Trade in the ancient world is an entire study in itself, and it is not my intention to go into that issue in this study. Clearly, the nature of trade is varied, from the pe y trade that occurs at markets in the vicinity of the Roman border to more controlled trade, where recipients may almost have held a monopoly on certain goods. However, in the present study, this ma er will be touched only briefly. Therefore, no particular meaning is inherent in my use of the word, other than what appears from the text. Appendices I have added a number of appendices to facilitate the access to certain information.
They include: 1 A list of Emperors. Maps of the north-western limes and of the Roman provinces of the first three centuries ad are added in the back. Acknowledgements I would like to thank my supervisors Ulla Lund Hansen Prehistorical Archaeology and Anne e Rathje Classical Archaeology for their guidance and comments throughout this process.
I am particularly grateful for the numerous fruitful discussions with and comments from my close friends and co-Ph. From abroad, Phil Freeman Liverpool has given me valuable advice through many conversations o en stretching into the early hours, and kind advice has come from Simon James Leicester. I also think back with great joy on the many hours spent teaching and travelling and discussing with the students of both the classical and prehistorical archaeology departments.
Finally, I would like to thank my daughter, Sophia, who, for a girl in her seventh year, has shown remarkable understanding for my absentmindedness the last six months or so of my work. The north-western limes from the 1st to the 3rd century ad The Research History T he research history for the present area of investigation, i. In the following years li le happened. A er the Napoleonic wars the interest in the Roman past grew in the new German states. These societies undertook archaeological ex- cavations of fortifications, towers and the limes itself. A er borders of the small German states.
At the same time local state Limes- Braun , fig. That gave the ancient historian Theodor Mommsen — Fig. With the support of Generalfeldmarschall Helmuth von Moltke — Mommsen worked for twenty years to organize this project. Not until the fall of Bismarck in could the first Reichs-Limeskommission. In , the government approved the A er Braun 10, fig.
An executive commi ee led by professor and librarian Karl Zangemeister — from Heidelberg was in charge of the project. Two Dirigenten, Felix He ner — , director of the Provincial Museum in Trier, and Generalleutnant Oscar von Sarwey — were elected to take care of practical ma ers. In , Ernst Fabricius — , professor in Freiburg, was called to assistance. When Zangemeister and He ner died in , Fabricius took over their positions. From that time, he alone was in charge of the project. Each stretch was to be examined and the sites excavated.
For this work the commission needed five years. A er several extensions, the last volume was published in At that time almost castella and around watchtowers had been examined and published in 14 volumes in two parts, Abteilung A about Strecken and Abteilung B about castella. In Rheinland-Westfalen as well there were studies of the Romans in the 15th and 16th century. In the following two centuries, much thought and romanticizing centred on Varus and Arminius based 2 Braun ; Kuhnen a: He was the first to initiate proper excavations in the province.
In Haltern, this led to the discovery of postholes, something that revolutionized excavation techniques. The essential factor in the post- World War II Roman provincial research was an enormous building boom. This resulted in massive rescue excavations throughout the German states. The result was great activity in that area of research as well. The last twenty years have seen an increasing interest in the civilian se lements as well as in the military installations. This renewed a research interest in the time of the Augustan campaigns.
Only a few years earlier a discovery was made in Bayern of a double legionary camp at Marktbreit near the Main, situated much further east, than hitherto expected. Checked September 25th When Roman remains are mentioned it is as an integrated part of either prehistoric or classical archaeology. The research and registration of archaeological monuments began in the early 16th century. The remains were placed in a historical and general geographical context.
In , the government interfered for the first time in the preservation of historical monuments. In the northern province of Drenthe, it was suggested that stones from the Fig. A er de Weerd , fig. It was led by C. Reuvens — , who at the same time was appointed professor of national archaeology at the University at Leiden, the first non-classical in the world. This was the beginning of modern archaeology. Checked on December the 5th Atlases were herea er published on a regular basis by the RMO.
At the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century, various societies were formed on both a national and regional level. Roman provincial research. A er www. Checked on the 15th of December Haltern in Germany to the Netherlands. These two scholars did not see things the same way.
Due to the rivalry, relations between the two institutions were very poor. Until then, provincial Roman archaeology was characterized by haphazard excavations consisting of trial trenches with no thought for stratigraphy or periodisation. The result was the hypothetical reconstruction of plans of sites that no one had tried to put into some sort of system or context. For the first time a Roman castellum was examined thoroughly and almost completely excavated. This created a renewed interest in other Roman sites like the castella in Utrecht and Bunnik- Vechten.
Willems became one of the key factors behind the Roman period projects in the regions of the southern part of the Netherlands. Apart from the castellum, a large area south of the town has been excavated recently. Among other things, a part of the limes road was revealed for the first time.
The excavations led to the foundation of a trust, Stichting Onderzoek Romeinse Bewoning Valkenburg Foundation for the Investigation of the Roman Se lement at Valkenburg providing financial and organisational support. These discoveries created a renewed interest in the Roman limes area. These excavations became possible a er intense urban development.
In 27 van Es It took place in at the University of Durham led by Eric Birley. The purpose of the congresses is to give scholars the opportunity to meet across the borders and to enlighten the progress of the study of the frontiers of the Roman Empire by presenting the latest research. Checked December 5th At this point, Tiberius was just about to crush the last remaining unconquered part of Germania, the Marcomannic kingdom of Maroboduus. Tiberius had to se le quickly and turn his a ention towards the Balkans, where it would stay for the next three years.
However, as is well known everything turned from bad to worse. When Tiberius had finally succeeded in calming the hot spirits of Pannonia, news arrived of the fatal disaster that had taken place in the dense woods and foggy marshlands of Germania. Quinctilius Varus, the Roman legate of the Rhine army along with his three legions and auxiliaries had fallen into an ambush led by the Cheruscan prince, Arminius.
Few survived the a ack that lasted several days. Roman structures. A er F rom the campaigns of Tiberius in ad 4 and up to the disaster in ad 9, Schnurbein , fig. Legionary camp. The prominent site at Haltern on the Lippe River was discovered more than a hundred years ago with excavations still in progress Fig. Excavations began in with discoveries proving important for the history of the Augustan age. This site was a supply station. The Augustan sites are not all contemporary as a few belong to the campaigns of Drusus and Tiberius from 12 — 7 BC.
However, as an introduction to the disaster, both Velleius Paterculus and Cassius Dio give a quick overview of the situation. Paterculus describes the behaviour of the legate, Quinctilius Varus, who came to Germania a er governing the province of Syria. As a poor man he had come to a rich country and rich he had le the country poor.
In Germania, he was trying to install administration and law the Roman way, rather than to use force. Until recently, these descriptions were thought of as overstated and the authors were believed perhaps to have tried to make the development of Germania as a province appear more advanced than was the case. Civil presence I n the early s, a new site was discovered at Lahnau-Waldgirmes in Hessen.
Excavations from and onwards revealed what was at first believed to be one more Augustan military camp, but further investigation pointed towards another possibility. The central building had a stone foundation, which is the earliest of its kind this far North. Furthermore, the layout was rather that of a forum, than that of a principia. The remainder of the buildings found inside the walls also resembled civic structures more than those of an Augustan military camp. The statue was probably placed in the inner courtyard on a sandstone base from the area around Metz in Lorraine.
This po ery only appeared mixed with Roman finds indicating a close contact between the Romans and the local population. An absence of a military presence is also indicated by the very few finds of Roman militaria, a find group Fig. A er Becker , fig. Whether this was the case in other parts of the territory we will not know until more sites are discovered. The clades Variana V arus was apparently acting as if he was governing a more or less peaceful province rather than operating in enemy territory. Vexillations of the army were carrying out minor assignments such as the protection of locals from bands of robbers or as escorts of supplies.
Meanwhile the Cheruscan nobleman, Arminius was plo ing against the Romans. He and his father, Segimer were frequent guests of Varus, who was staying in the land of the Cherusci. Probably he had participated in the preparations against Maroboduus. Arminius now organized an ambush on the Roman army, as it moved out for winter quarters. This plan was allegedly known to Segestes, uncle and father-in-law to Arminius.
Segestes was pro-Roman and the fact that Arminius had married his daughter against his will would only have added to the enmity towards Arminius. The sources tell us that he warned Varus on several occasions and suggested that Varus should imprison himself, 51 Becker ; Becker et al. Varus, however, believing that peace would not be broken did apparently not listen to Segestes.
The army now moved towards the Rhine along a route designed by Arminius, a road leading the Romans into certain death. Adding to this, the weather season showed itself from the worst side with rain and storms knocking down trees. Suddenly, a ackers jumped the marching columns from all sides creating great confusion and destruction amongst the Roman soldiers, who were hindered by their heavy arms in the rainstorms and the dense and slippery undergrowth.
Although they managed to form some sort of stand in the following skirmishes it did them li le good. At Aliso the primipilaris, L. The construction of the statue, a symbol of German liberation from France, was not concluded until almost half a century later. Mommsen suggested the area of Kalkriese as a possible site based on Roman coin finds.
Clunn found a hoard consisting of pre-Tiberian Roman denarii in the Kalkrieser-Niewedder Senke and the following year he found three Roman lead sling shots indicating Roman military presence. These finds initiated extensive excavations from and onwards. Harnecker ; Timpe The excavations in the area have 17, map 1.
The revealed more than 5. Oberesch and the wall struc- Especially one area, the Oberesch, provided 4. A er Wilbers-Rost , fig. It became clear that a part of the finds had been covered by a wall structure that had fallen upon them. A er closer examination of the finds and surroundings of the wall, it could be seen that the wall did not belong to a closed structure.
It was c. The construction showed that it had been built in a fairly short time with what was at hand close by. The wall was also supplied with a drainage ditch, which indicates that the wall was supposed to remain intact for some time.
It was also supplied with several passages. Since most Roman finds were located on what appeared to be the outside of the wall, a Germanic origin seemed the most plausible. The find complex indicated that this was the scene of a ba le between Romans and Germanic tribes. Here, the showpiece of the excavation, a face mask from a Roman equestrian helmet was found. The mask had been stripped of its silver sheet, a fact that is hard to explain, however. The excavator, S. Wilbers-Rost suggests that the silver had been torn of during plundering and the iron mask then le behind for unknown reasons.
If this was the case, the wall must have tumbled down during the plundering. This is clearly illustrated on the maps though they show the state in ; Wilbers-Rost a: The excavations revealed the bones of both humans and animals, but only at this site the bones were in situ. The remaining half of the mule still had its harness, the other a bell and bridle. These, along with other larger finds, such as a pickaxe and other tools and weapons would have been removed during the plunder. If it had been taken during plunder, it should be expected that the other items would have been removed as well.
I think a possible solution is that this mask had already been stripped and at the time of a ack was kept as a spare part for later use and that it was carried by one of the mules, which possibly belonged to a blacksmith. This could explain the half mule, as the other half had then been sacrificed at another place. The remaining skeletal remains constituted another important find group. Five pits of up to 2x2x1 m were discovered. In the pits, bones and bone fragments from both humans and animals had been gathered Fig. Two of the pits were packed with bones, while the remaining three had considerably fewer bones.
In two of the pits, fragments of skulls had been deposited inside each other as bowls. Bone pits. Photo: Museum und For all pits the facts were the same. The bones never constituted a whole body, and zoological and anthropological analyses showed that the bones had been exposed for some years prior to the deposition. Red spots on some bones suggested close contact to metal objects for 59 Wilbers-Rost a: ; b: There were also bite marks from small animals.
No bones could be said conclusively to have come from women. The animal remains derived almost entirely from mule. Most of them had been buried in hoards. An examination of the coins provided F. Berger with the following conclusions: None were younger the 1 ad, but the countermark VAR on some of the coins provided a terminus post quem of ad 7, when Varus became governor. No coins could be dated to a post-Varian period, and the coins resemble those of Haltern with an end date of ad 9.
Furthermore, the proportion of coins of precious metals compared to other metals was more than Comparisons to other Augustan sites showed at best a ratio of , for Haltern even With this huge amount of valuables, Berger sees no reason to believe this site to be anything other than the final ba lefield of the Varus-disaster. The ancient historians P. Kehne and R. Wolters each have argued against the conclusions put forward by Berger. Basing their arguments on a re-evaluation of the numismatic evidence and the literary sources they reach the conclusion that Kalkriese is most likely not the site of the Varus-disaster, but more likely an incident occurring in ad Kehne lists a number of possible incidences.
Therefore he believes the ba lefield to belong to the Germanicus campaigns from ad Furthermore, he finds it plausible to identify the Roman fort of Aliso with Haltern. Tacitus tells us that Aliso was re-occupied by Germanicus and Berger himself placed Kalkriese in the so-called Haltern-horizon, reckoning with a similar end-date. The remains were found southwest of the porta praetoria in a po ery oven. Recently three additional pits have been discovered. Wilbers-Rost, Kalkriese: Personal communication. This Kalkriese-Kartell, as he calls them, also profited economically by their exploitation of the Varus-disaster theory.
Severus Caecina finds himself and his men in trouble. Berger and U. Wilbers- Rost. She states that it is first and foremost a numismatic discussion and that from an archaeological point of view it is much more likely that Kalkriese is the site of the Varus-disaster. Rost as well. He compares the archaeological and literary sources and plausibly explains how the Romans might have thought the Germanic wall to be part of a Roman camp, thereby placing the ba lefield inside the camp.
That explains why the camps mentioned by Tacitus and Cassius Dio are not there. Horn however, is not so sure. He believes that there are serious arguments for the Caecina- theory. During the next couple of years he toured the right side of the Rhine without much trouble. With him as second- in-command he had Germanicus. In ad 13, he went back to Rome. The following year he succeeded Augustus as Emperor. Silius and A. Severus Caecina, all in all an army of eight legions with auxiliaries.
During the next three years Germanicus campaigned in Germania with varying success. In ad 15, he encountered the ba lefield, where Varus and his army were defeated. Survivors, who accompanied him, could point out where everything had happened. Germanicus had the ro ing bones of the fallen gathered and buried, and a tumulus raised. A er a minor skirmish with Arminius, Germanicus decided to go back to the winter quarters.
A er leading the army to the River Ems, Germanicus himself led half the army back by way of the ocean, while Caecina were to lead the lower Rhine army by way of the pontes longi. The long bridges were roads of planks leading through the immense swamps and bog areas.
In order to make a stand, Caecina formed a ba le line along a narrow stretch of land between the hills and the bogs. That night he dreamt that Varus came out of the bog to drag him down. The next day Arminius taunted the Romans comparing them to Varus and his legions. However due to the cunning of Caecina, the Romans carried the day in the end.
But there are other suggestions as to where the pontes longi could have been. In , P. Pieper came across a wooden object, which he immediately identified as a weapon, believing it to be of an early medieval date. The road was believed to be from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. A total of 11 weapons were found, of which seven were clubs and the remaining four shaped as one-edged swords Fig. The road had a destruction layer from which the weapons came. This layer had an end date based on C14 and dendrochronological analyses of ad On some of the wooden weapons there were cut marks from use in ba le.
In fact, in his account Fig. A er Pieper were used by the Germanic warriors and that only the front line had 79, fig. An example of a spear without iron head was indeed also part of the finds from the Bohlenweg XXV. It is cm long, of which the last 50 cm constitute the point. While the fleet was being prepared, he learned that the fort, probably Aliso, on the Lippe was besieged, but coming to their relief the a ackers withdrew. He then secured the road from Aliso to the Rhine and raised an alter set up by Drusus, which had been destroyed by the a ackers.
Arminius was defeated, but got away. A er another successful engagement, Germanicus returned. He had arrived at the Ems by fleet and returned now the same way with most of the army. Unfortunately the fleet was surprised by a storm, which inflicted enormous casualties. Learning of this accident the Germanic tribes grew bold again, but Germanicus immediately sent the legate of the upper Rhine army, C.
Silius against the Cha i, himself invading the Marsi, quickly crushing their newfound spirit. Shortly herea er Tiberius called Germanicus back to Rome, although Germanicus had been eager to continue campaigning. This ended Roman military engagement in Germania. According to Tacitus, the reason was that Tiberius was envious and did not want Germanicus to become too powerful by re-establishing order in Germania.
The recent archaeological discoveries have clearly demonstrated that the answer to the question of a Roman presence east of the Rhine in the first decade ad is much more nuanced than previously believed. The discoveries also provide a reason for a cautious view of the certain elements of the early narratives. It is obvious that Varus is made responsible by some of the authors. He was obviously an adversary to Arminius, but that may easily be because they represented two fractions of the Cherusci. This was in ad 15, six years a er the ambush. Now he wanted to be friends with the Romans like in the good old days, and now he told them, what no one could verify, that he had warned Varus before the disaster, and that Varus ignored him.
This situation is described by Tacitus as a surrender to and pardon by the Romans. It was his third governorship a er Africa and Syria and although Germania must have appeared frightfully barbaric compared to the other two provinces, he had had two years to get used to it by the time of his death. Certainly, it did help Varus that he was close to the imperial family. As supreme commander in Syria, he was responsible for suppressing a serious revolt in Judea in 4 BC.
I believe that the overall picture available today also makes it possible to suggest an alternative explanation to the unfinished double legionary camp at Marktbreit, another recent find. This camp was situated at a bend of the Main, km east of Mogontiacum Mainz. Apart from the circumvallation, only the central buildings, some work facilities and a few head-buildings for barracks were built, before the work was stopped and the site le alone.
The few objects found showed a presence of both legionarii and Germanic auxiliarii. I believe the Marktbreit camp was a piece of the process of civilising Germania, intended to function as a winter camp, such as those mentioned above, described by Cassius Dio. Therefore, it should belong to the later phase and was only abandoned a er the clades Variana. What has exited some people lately is obviously the question of the site in the Kalkrieser-Niewedder Senke. This is not new, of course. In , Mommsen talked about die Schlacht um die Varus-Schlacht because every local historian seemed to be able to locate the ba lefield in his own backyard.
Wiegels demonstrated that on one hand the descriptions of Cassius Dio and Tacitus fit the Kalkriese scene, i. On the other hand, the descriptions are of a general character in line with a literary tradition, which can be seen, for instance, in the works of Pomponius Mela. Basically Mela describes Germania as a terrible and unfriendly land full of the above mentioned features. And in fact lots of other places fit the description as well as Kalkriese.
But we learn that Germanicus led the army back to the Ems to send back the legions with the fleet. Then part of 86 Pietsch As he was heading for the Rhine, I find that highly unlikely. The high amount of gold and silver coins and the bone pits also speak against the Caecina theory. If the text is to be taken literally one should expect one large pit, above which the tomb would be created. But the possibility remains that the men made small pits, and then one large tomb was raised in honour of them all.
The excavations have shown that the pits had been dug, where the soil was so er. Another questions is, what Varus was doing with an army of that size in that area. That as well as other aspects has already been taken under thorough consideration by D. Timpe in his Arminius-Studien from That the territory of the Cherusci should be unsafe perhaps indicates that the Romans did not have as much control over the area east of the Weser.
Timpe points out that the only reason valid for Varus to bring an army that size, had to be military. And as such the threat had to be external. Arminius must have asked Varus to deal with certain security ma ers concerning the neighbouring tribes of the Cherusci, such as the Langobardi or the Semnones. Only the Cherusci are mentioned during the ba le. From the 90 Tacitus Annales 1. The only tribe mentioned in connection with the Romans is that of the Chauci, who provide Germanicus with auxiliaries.
Speculations have been made Fig. The set contains two silver cups decorated with motifs from the Iliad, much resembling the Boscoreale cups. Was the Hoby chie ain active on the Roman side during the campaigns from ad 16? And did he receive the set from C. Silius for his help? The fact that the set is almost complete indicates that it was passed on directly to the chie ain. A grave from Bendstrup on Djursland contained what appears to be missing at Hoby, a bronze krater. There were also two Roman fibulae of a sort that are found in local copies in the Hoby grave. Another important find contained object similar to the Hoby cups only on a much larger scale, namely the Hildesheim find.
In a trench dug by Prussian soldiers in , a basket with 70 98 Tacitus Annales 1. See also below. As the contents could be identified as Augustan, the hoard was naturally connected to the Varus disaster. Some scholars believe that some of the objects belong to a later period, why the hoard cannot be connected with the Augustan campaigns. However, this is not the prevailing opinion. The turmoil that followed in the wake of his death brought four new emperors in only two years time. In ad 70, as the forces of Vespasian had ended the short rule of Vitellius, the civil war was over, but the Empire was by no means at peace.
At this point the new Emperor was le with several uprisings all over the Roman world. One of these was the Batavian Revolt. The revolt is described almost in its entirety by Tacitus, who is our only useful literary source to the incident. At the death of Vespasian in ad 79, the Batavian revolt would seem to have been only a small part of the times and troubles that brought Vespasian to power.
And for the western part of the Empire this was truly the beginning of the Pax Romana. However, this was not the prevailing image a er the death of Vitellius on the 20th of December ad They se led in the area between the rivers Rhine and Waal in what the Romans came to know as the Insula Batavorum, or Island of the Batavi. Certain indications suggest that this migration happened with the knowledge and consent, if not even instigation of Julius Caesar. The Batavi were renowned for their fighting abilities, for instance, that they were capable of crossing rivers on horseback in full fighting formation.
Julius Tacitus Historiae 4. Paulus was executed, while Civilis was sent to Nero in Rome in shackles. Meanwhile, Nero was dead and his successor, Galba set Civilis free. A er the death of Galba, he was once again accused by the Rhine armies, but was eventually let go by Vitellius out of fear of aggravating his Batavian cohorts. As the levies on the Batavian youths were increasing, he had li le trouble ge ing the support of the leading men of the Batavian society. The conspiracy was joined by the Canninefates and the Frisii, who under the command of one Brinno of the Canninefates had a acked and burned some of the forts near the mouth of the Rhine.
Other forts were incinerated by the Romans themselves as they could not hold them. The result of the ba le was that the Tungrian auxiliaries defected to Civilis and that the Rhine fleet, which was largely manned by Batavian sailors, fell into his hands. A er the expulsion of the Romans from his homeland, Civilis set his mind on the legionary fortress, Castra Vetera Xanten.
He had recently been reinforced by the eight Batavian cohorts that Vitellius originally Tacitus Historiae I. He was also joined by the Germanic tribes of the Tencteri and Bructeri and possibly other Germanic tribes, though at this point that is a ma er of interpreting the text of Tacitus, and perforce by the Cugerni in whose area Castra Vetera was situated. It seems that throughout the revolt Civilis had close connections to the leader of the Bructeri, the prophetess Veleda. The Romans were able to withstand a siege, and at the same time a relief army camped near Gelduba Krefeld- Gellep.
In the following period it came to several skirmishes in the area, even as far as inside the Roman camp, but no decisive results were made. Meanwhile Civilis had Germanic tribes a ack the land of the Ubii i. They were followed by some Ubians and Tungrians. Now, at last the Castra Vetera fell. Soon all Roman military bases along the Rhine were destroyed and burned except the legionary fortresses of Mogontiacum Mainz and Vindonissa Windisch.
The only tribes le for Civilis in the area were those of the Sunuci, Tungri, Baetasii and Nervii, who followed shortly a er. Quote from Tacitus Historiae 4. But the alliance was made up of parties with separate agendas, and preparation for Roman retaliation apparently was not one of them. The first indication that Fortuna had grown tired of the alliance came, when Sabinus and his Lingoni were defeated by the Sequani. The second indication came at a meeting in Durocortorum Reims , the capital of the Remi, where the Gallic tribes were gathered to discuss whether they should join the fight for freedom or remain in peace with the Romans, Julius Valentinus of the Treveri speaking for the alliance.
The tribes had already learned that Roman armies were approaching and decided in favour of the Romans. Tacitus describes it as follows: Fig. Mogontia- cum. A er The Roman armies on their way to the North were impressive, and due Soesbergen , map to the ineptitude of the Alliance to think strategically, the restoration of 1.
Licinius Mucianus sent from Italy the 2nd, 8th, 11th, 13th and 21st legion under the leadership of Q. Petillius Cerealis. From Hispania came the 1st and 6th and from Britannia the 14th legion. Here Civilis, Tacitus Historiae 4. See Tacitus Historiae 4. Herea er some counter a acks were initiated, but they only led to minor unimportant victories.
Civilis now tried to make a stand at Castra Vetera, but a er two days fighting he was forced to retreat. The following events finally forced Civilis even to abandon his own homeland and to cross the Rhine. At this point he decided to surrender. As the main source for the revolt is so abruptly ending we do not know the terms of the peace agreement between Civilis and Cerealis. Tacitus mentions that Civilis later stated that he and the Germanic tribes could have crushed the Roman legions had he not dissuaded them, a statement Tacitus finds plausible.
Cerealis had secretly initiated peace negotiations with the Batavi and had sent a message to Veleda and the Bructeri that all they would get out of prolonging this fight would be trouble with the Romans. Furthermore, the destroyed auxiliary forts were rebuilt and new were erected. This said we could come far on archaeological data alone. The forts T he most prominent Roman feature in the lower Rhine area is the chain of Roman forts along the river. The initiation of the chain of forts can be dated to around ad At this fort, which covers eight periods, dating from ad 40 to the 2nd half of the 4th century, a massive incendiary layer was found between periods 3 and 4.
Material found in the layer included Neronian terra sigillata relating the destruction to the post Neronian troubles in the area. There is a strong possibility that a Gallic cohort occupied the fort prior to the revolt. Of the Roman defence of the Insula Batavorum Tacitus tells us the following: The Roman ensigns and standards with all the soldiers were concentrated in the upper part of the island under the leadership of Aquilius, a centurion of the first rank… Tacitus Historiae 4. For more li.
See Hessing In a cellar within the fort a bronze disc was found, probably a so-called phalera. The back had a pin for the fastening of the disc. The front was covered with silver sheet and had the following inscription carved in the silver Fig. Aquilius, a former centurion of this legion, had risen to the rank of primipilaris i. Being the most experienced he led the Roman defence.
A er the Roman surrender, this double legionary fortress was completely destroyed. As the Roman stronghold nearest to the Batavian homeland, this was necessary. Excavations in the area have revealed a number of field camps as well as remains of the Vicus of Gelduba. The remains consist mainly of ditches that can be divided in three phases. From the ditches four camps can be identified.
They show that the vicus had already been destroyed, when the relief army arrived. The most prominent feature, though, is a large number of horse cadavers found in the ditches of the camps Fig. Horse evolving. The layout of the 3rd phase compared to the 2nd shows that cadavers in the camp ditch. When the Romans had arrived at Gelduba they A er Reichmann , fig.
In fact such a transport had been the reason for one of the skirmishes that had taken place. Therefore the camp had been withdrawn from the river bank. The largest concentration of horse cadavers was near one of the gates. This particular gate had been cancelled in the new layout.
Perhaps the Romans had learned that this had been a weak spot. Few military objects were found. One was a helmet of the Weisenau-type that had been altered. The cheek plates and neck guard had been removed and along the edge leather was a ached, which had held feathers and the rest had been covered with fur. This indicates that Fig. B : Gelduba. One of the tribes that we hear of in the following period is the Bructeri, whose leader, Veleda had been paramount to the organisation of the Germanic tribes.
Tacitus tells us that Cerealis, at the time of the initial negotiations with Civilis, also advises Veleda to make peace or feel the vengeance of Rome. A few years later an army was sent against them led by C. Rutilius Gallicus, the legate of the lower Rhine army from ad Veleda was captured and installed as a temple-cleaner in Ardea in Latium.
They were a acked in ad 83 by Domitian, who might have extended the Roman territory on the east side, the Agri Decumates, even further. That this triumph was beli led by many of those surviving him is not given credit by H. Bengtson, who sees this as slander of a much disliked and deceased tyrant.
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As they were with Civilis at the end, perhaps an agreement was reached at that time. Tacitus Agricola Tacitus Historiae 5. Major focus was on the Suebic tribes of the Marcomanni and Quadi, who lived north of the above mentioned provinces.
Confrontations with these and other Germanic tribes coming to these regions are what were to be known as the Marcomannic wars from ad to and to In the Middle Danube region the archaeological remains tell us of unrest in the second half of the 2nd century ad on both sides of the Danube, but there is also evidence of cooperation between Romans and Germanic peoples from the beginning of the 2nd century ad.
Unrest can be traced down to Italy and both eastwards and westwards of the Middle Danube region. However, not all traces of violence can be a ributed to these wars. Through correlation with the literary sources it is possible with reasonable safety to combine certain finds with certain events. Both archaeological and literary sources reveal a close relationship between the two sides for centuries going back to the age of Augustus.
Find concentrations the Lesser Carpathian Mountains. Based on the imports, the Roman interests seemed to shi eastwards to the area that was to form the base of the trading route to the Baltic area. This indicates a Fig. A er Pi s These observations have lead scholars to correlate the archaeological 57, fig. Few areas in Barbaricum have been of interest to the Roman literates for so long providing us with observations concerning the relations to and conditions of the kingdom of the Marcomanni and Quadi. The most striking of these was the presence of Tejral Some of the sites consisted of an almost square area lined with a stone wall or palisade.
Inside the walls could be found a series of masonry buildings including one with a heating system and apsidal rooms, i. The stamps showed that the Roman army had supplied most of the building material, although there was nothing military about the buildings whatsoever. Another similarity was that the complexes were always close neighbours to Germanic se lements. At several sites the archaeological evidence has shown the presence of cra smen in the vicinity. Thanks partly to the stamps these sites can be dated from the early 2nd Fig.
A: Granarium. The best preserved of these sites was found at Stupava c. A total of nine complexes have been confirmed and a similar number are suspected due to the finds of stamped tiles. He stated that if that was the case, then the uniformity of the sites would demonstrate that there had been no development or change from the 2nd to the 4th century ad. Possibly they could be road stations.
He took the absence of Germanic po ery related to the earliest phase of the Stupava station from around ad as an indication that these stations were not meant for the Germanic rulers. The construction of the stations occurred under Roman auspices, but sometimes in close collaboration with the local population. Civilian comforts outranked fortifications. The function was rarely constant. In times of peace the sites were predominantly civilian. The relationship with the surrounding Germanic se lements varied from station to station and in time.
Arguments for an interpretation that the stations were built for Germanic chie ains were so far not adequate. Pi s saw three explanations for these features. Another possibility was that they were built for the Roman centurions appointed to oversee local meetings according to the peace treaty in ad Finally, the Romans could have built the sites for the Germanic nobility. This site is exceptional among other things for two huge pit houses of 9x6 and 11x14 m that had been roofed with tegulae.
Upon returning from Roman service, he forged a kingdom with his tribe, the Marcomanni ruling over neighbouring Suebian tribes as well, but alarming the Romans at the same time. In ad 6, Tiberius was about to embark on the conquest of this Marcomannic kingdom, the only part of Germania le unconquered according to Velleius Paterculus. When a revolt broke out in Pannonia, a treaty had to be made in haste with Maroboduus.
Eventually Maroboduus was overthrown by Catualda and was se led by Tiberius in Ravenna, where he lived for 18 years. This indicates that whatever agreements existed between the Romans and Maroboduus must in some form have continued under Catualda. His rule lasted for 30 years constituting what some have labelled the first real Roman client state in the north. Again, the close connection to the Roman Empire was kept intact. All translations are by the author. A following punitive campaign only led to Roman defeat.
He himself was not directly involved in all these wars, however. Already in ad trouble brewed in both ends of the Empire Fig. In the a empt to re-establish Roman control of in the reign of Marcus Aure- Armenia, the governor of Cappadocia was defeated. The co-Emperor lius.
Not until ad were things under control to Roman satisfaction. Some signs of destruction or unrest can Tacitus Historiae 3. V, Especially the Roman castella, for instance at Butzbach or Echzell, in the northern tip of the Agri Decumates show signs that could relate to the raids of the Cha i. As the a ack was repelled by the governor of the province of Gallia Belgica, Didius Julianus, with locally raised auxiliaries, the Chauci are assumed to have come by sea, as they had done previously. Sub Didio Iuliano Consulare. According to the Historia Augusta Didius Julianus was awarded the consulship for his merits in Belgica.
Earlier a acks: Tacitus Annales Birley believes that he was appointed already in ad , Birley At the same time, the building activity could be caused not by a need to rebuild a er destruction, but by a belief that the frontier needed strengthening now that the borders were under control again. The castellum at Fectio Vechten was rebuilt in the second half of the 2nd century ad.
This must have been a reaction to an immediate threat; perhaps the a ack of the Chauci, as the town was devastated shortly a er. Eck with reference to the Historia Augusta that the province involved was not Germania Inferior, but Gallia Belgica and that the a ack was repelled by locally raised troops. Were incidents related to the a ack of the Chauci in Germania Inferior simply not relevant to the point?
There, with hastily raised auxiliaries from the province, he resisted the Chauci,…, as they burst forth. On the other hand the archaeological data can provide us with indications only and not with any absolute evidence. In Gallia Belgica, a number of other sites have been related to the raid of the Chauci Fig. The sites are situated near the North Sea just south of the River Schelde. They have been identified as military installations partly based on the presence of defensive structures such as walls and ditches.
At Aardenburg, a stone circumvallation has been dated to the To this also Hessing The site was dated to the period from to ad.
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The date of this is more uncertain, as the major part of the finds, including the stone vallum, is from the 3rd century ad. A ccording to the Historia Augusta the war against the Parthians had not been concluded, when war broke out at the Danube frontier, although it had been postponed by diplomacy. North of the middle Danube in the lands of the Marcomanni and Quadi several Germanic tribes had apparently gathered due to pressure from the northeast of other tribes, the superiores barbari mentioned in the Historia Augusta.
These pressured tribes were interested in receiving land inside the Empire. In fact, A. As such, the pressure on the borderland tribes came from all possible sides. Thus, the earlier so prominent Cherusci living in the Weser area, are not mentioned at all. At least, we have no reason to believe otherwise, as the Quadi tried to migrate north to the Semnones at the end of the war. Here they were met by a determined Roman army, which quickly convinced them that they had made a mistake in crossing the Danube. The army had brought back a plague from the east.
This decease ravished the empire for years to come and decimated both the general population and the army. As things had calmed down, Verus wanted to return to Rome, since part of their army had perished to the plague, but on the way he died of a stroke forcing Marcus Aurelius to bring him back to Rome for burial. Meanwhile there was heavy fighting in Dacia and Moesia Superior.
At the same time, the tribe of the Costoboci, an eastern tribe invaded the Balkans almost reaching Athens. This was also the time of the 2nd invasion of the Cha i. Birley In Noricum, several towns such as Iuvavum Salzburg and Aelium Cetium St. The incursions in this area probably caused the construction of a city wall at Augusta Vindelicum Augsburg. Initiated a er the invasion of the Marcomanni and Quadi to prevent such a calamity again, it was given up only a few years later, as the northern border had been re-established.
The arrangements agreed to by the Romans depended much on the position of the tribes to the Romans and to the other tribes. Some were used against other tribes receiving payment for it. Some were se led within the Empire. The Quadi were granted peace separately in order to isolate them from the Marcomanni and Iazyges, as these three tribes were the main adversaries. Part of the agreement was that they should not allow entrance to people from the other two tribes into their territory. This is depicted as the first scene on the commemorative column of the Marcomannic wars in the Piazza Colonna in Rome, which probably only depicts the first war from ad to , as no co-regents are present.
By the end of the campaign they had been subjugated and severe peace conditions had been imposed on them. One of these was the demand that a stretch Fig. A er Tejral b: 88, fig. On the north side there was a single V-shaped ditch, which was doubled on the west and south sides. An incendiary layer indicates two phases, as the wall has been repaired and enforced with sun-dried bricks. A later discovery on the north-eastern slope at Neurissen appear to be a part of the fortification.
The small finds from the site were all related to the Roman military of the second half of the 2nd century ad, although coins and terra sigillata finds narrow this down to the s. One group of coins is from ad to , while coins found above the Fig. The latest coins are from ad A er Tejral b: 76, fig. Remains of march camps, 6: Two km long wall-and-ditch The ditch was 4,4 m wide and 1,98 m deep and had an opening in the with titulum.
A er Tejral b: 74, fig. The Quadi were violating their agreement and had even deposed their pro-Roman king, Furtius, and chosen one Ariogaesus without even asking. This quite aggravated Marcus Aurelius. Once he had dealt with them, he returned to the unfinished business with the Iazyges. The Quadi had more or less the same peace conditions imposed on them, as the Marcomanni. Once Ariogaesus was caught, he was sent in exile to Alexandria, the poor man!
A number of marching camps on the north side of the Danube have been connected to campaigns against the Quadi Fig. They are situated in south-western Slovakia and form three groups. Here the Romans built a permanent wood-and-earth fort. Based on the finds, especially coins, it is believed that the fort was built at the end of the first war in ad A destruction layer is dated to ad during the second war. They would have been respectively 20 and 50 ha large, which means the larger one could have housed roughly The dating is somewhat insecure, as no datable material was found, but one of the ditches apparently cut through a pit-house, where some Antonine po ery was found.
Giving the circumstances the camps most likely belong to these wars as well. However, the dates of these camps cannot place them with certainty in the first or second war, only that they were used during the s ad. At this time the Emperor was still fighting the Iazyges. Although Cassius was killed even before the campaign against the Iazyges had ended, Marcus Aurelius was forced to go east to secure his position, why he had to se le with the Iazyges instead of annihilating them, as he seemingly intended.
According to the Historia Augusta, this also prevented Marcus Aurelius from creating the two new provinces of Marcomannia and Sarmatia. The second War ad Fig. Valerius Maximianus from Zana in I n ad , trouble had started again in the Danube region, but Marcus Aurelius and Commodus, who was now co-emperor did not arrive until late in Free shipping.
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