Memorias de Cuba : Logros y fracasos de la revolucion cubana (Spanish Edition)

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Thousands also arrived in boats from Port Camarioca in This was a foreshadowing of the massive exodus of Cubans from Mariel Harbor in , and the thousands of rafters that crossed the Florida straits in the s. During the s and 60s, Cubans arriving in Miami were drawn primarily from the upper and middle socioeconomic classes, because the lives of educated and wealthy professionals were drastically affected by the economic and political changes in Cuba.


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They were forced to give up their personal property, including homes, farms and businesses, to the new Marxist regime. Once in the U. It was a humbling experience for many but they endured, sustained by the dream of returning to a democratic Cuba. The attempt to overthrow the Castro govern- ment failed and resulted in the death of and the capture of 1, soldiers of Brigade For many the dream of a free Cuba faded with each passing year.

Cubans started to rebuild their lives and set down roots in South Florida. Miami became their own Little Havana, their home away from home. In less than 30 years, Miami was transformed from a vacation resort with a seasonal economy to a cosmopolitan city with a booming economy.

Cubans opened their own businesses and soon Miami was filled with Cuban restaurants, night clubs and shops, as well as grocery stores, sidewalk counter cafes, law firms and doctors' offices. Undoubtedly, Cubans have made major contributions to the development of Greater Miami. Dade County's Hispanic population has gradually increased with the dramatic flow of immigrants from the Caribbean and Latin America. In spite of their assimilation into American culture, Cubans have steadfastly held on to their customs, traditions and most importantly, their language.

Greater Miami shows many signs of the Cubans' will to preserve their rich culture. There are dozens of Spanish newspa- pers and publications, Spanish-language radio stations and television channels. Some popular Spanish talk shows and variety shows are filmed in Miami and broadcast throughout the U. Today, many of Miami's Cuban Americans occupy top leadership positions in business, politics, education, and the arts and entertainment industry. Miles de cubanos refugiados comenzaron a llegar a Miami en como consecuencia del nuevo regimen dictatorial que asumio el poder en la isla.

Los cubanos se consideraron exiliados y no inmigrantes ya que buscaban refugio temporario de las perturbaciones polfticas, sociales y economicas que acontecieron en Cuba con la venida de Fidel Castro al poder en Entre y los Vuelos de la Libertad transportaron a casi , cubanos a los Estados Unidos. Miles tambien llegaron por el puente maritimo de Camarioca en Este exodo por el Puerto de Camarioca seria el precursor del exodo del Mariel en , y a los miles de balseros que atravesaron el Estrecho de la Florida en la decada de los noventa.

Durante los anos cincuenta y sesenta, la mayoria de los cubanos que llegaba a Miami pertenecia principalmente a las clases mas acomodadas o a la clase media, con un nutrido numero de personas altamente educadas y de profesionales quienes habfan sido afectados directamente por los cambios socioeconomics ocurridos en Cuba.

Al abandonar Cuba, el regimen marxista confisco sus propiedades: casas, fincas y negocios. En los Estados Unidos tuvieron que aprender nuevas costumbres, un nuevo idioma y volver a empezar. Para muchos esta experiencia fue una leccion de humildad, pero se sobrepusieron sostenidos por el sueno de un regreso a una Cuba democratica. En , la Agenda Central de [nteligencia v un grupode cubanos exiliados intentaron convertir el sueno de un regreso en realidad lanzando la invasion de Bahfa de Cochinos.

Este intento de derrocar al regimen castrista fracaso y resulto en la muerte de 1 14 y la captura de 1, miembros de la Brigada Con el pasar de los anos, el sueno de una Cuba libre se fue lentamente desvaneciendo para muchos. Miami se convirtio en la Pequena Habana, una segunda casa.

Politics and Violence in Cuban and Argentine Theater | SpringerLink

En menos de 30 anos, Miami se transformo de un lugar de vacaciones y veraneo con economia de temporada a una ciudad cosmopolita con una economia en expansion. Los cubanos abrieron sus propios negocios y pronto Miami se colmo de restaurantes. Sin duda. Con las inmigraciones de America Hispana y del Caribe, la poblacion hispana de Miami ha ido en aumento con el pasar de los anos. A pesar de la asimilacion a la cultura norteamericana, los cubanos se han arraigado con firmeza a sus costumbres, tradiciones y aiin mas importante a su idioma.

El gran Miami muestra la huella del profundo deseo de los cubanos de mantener su rica tradition cultural. Existen docenas de pen. W 9th Street Miami, FL Get a personal tour of the quaint museum by one of the very servicemen of the Brigade who fought in the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba. The homelike museum preserves pictures and paraphernalia used during the unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the Castro regime.

During the s, it was a popular spot for Cuban refugees to visit en route to the Freedom Tower which is across the street where they were processed for immigration. The park is located near Bayside Marketplace, a stretch of shops and restaurants by Biscayne Bay. Many events and festivals, such as the Veinte de Mayo May 20th celebration of Cuba's independence from Spanish rule, are held at Bayfront Park each year. One of the most recent additions to the park is the Liberty Column, a monument to Cuban rafters.

The marble column pays homage to the thousands of unknown rafters lost at sea. Coral Way Elementary S. During the early s, it operated half-day English and half-day Spanish sessions and still has a bilingual program that serves as a model for other schools with Hispanic students. Credito Cigar Factory S. The business was originally founded in Havana.

Cuba in A passerby can watch the talwqueros cigar workers make traditional Cuban hand-rolled cigars. A tour of the cigar factory can be arranged by calling in advance. The trail is a tribute to Cuban artists who have promoted Cuban heritage through their work in America. Periodically, a new artist or celebrity is inducted into the ''Cuban Culture in Exile" walk of fame.

W 9th Street, Miami, PL Disfrute de una visita a este singular museo conducida por uno de los combatientes de la Brigada , quien participo en la invasion de Bahia de Cochinos, Cuba en Este acogedor museo guarda retratos asi como objetos utilizados durante el fallido intento de derrocar al regimen de Castro. Parque Bayfroni Biscayne Boulevard, Miami, EL 33 1 3 1 Carinosamente llamado por los cubano americanos el "Parque de las Palomas," fue durante la decada de los sesenta un lugar visitado con frecuencia por los cubanos refugiados en camino a la Torre de la Libertad.

La Torre de la Libertad, frente al parque, fue el lugar donde los documentos de los refugiados fueron procesados por la oficina de inmigracion. Muchos eventos y festivales, tales como el Veinte de Mayo que conmemora la independencia de Cuba, se celebran anualmente en este parque. A principios de los sesenta. Aun esta escuela cuenta con un programa bilingue que sirve de modelo a otras escuelas con poblaciones hispanas. Fabricade Tabacos Cred S.

W 8th Street. Miami EL En Ernesto Perez-Carrillo establecio esta fabnea de tabacos en Miami. El negocio habi'a sido establecido con antenondad en La Habana en El visitante a esta fabnea podra observar a los tabaqueros enrollando los tradicionales tabacos cubanos. Para visitai la fabnea es mejoi llamar con anticipacion. The Conservative Jewish congregation built the Temple Beth Shmuel which holds many traditional and religious events.

Cuban Memorial Boulevard S. The most prominent monument is the Eternal Torch in Honor of the Brigade, a memorial to the men who died in the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba. An annual ceremony on the anniversary of the invasion commemo- rates the soldiers who attempted to overthrow the Castro regime. The second monument is a bronze statue of Nestor A. A bronze map of Cuba is dedicated to "the ideals of people who will never forget the pledge of making their fatherland free:' The fourth monument is a statue of the Virgin Mary and a marker that reads.

The last monument is a bronze bust of General Antonio Maceo.

La Revolución Cubana ha generado beneficios para su población

He was known as the "Bronze Titan" because of his courage and undying love for his country. Cuban- born sculptor Tony Lopez created the Izquierdo statue and the Maceo bust. Cuban Museum of Arts and Culture S. It is dedicated to the preservation and exhibition of Cuban art and culture. Its permanent collection includes paintings, books, historical documents, letters and an Cuban flag in its original condition. With skill and courage, the Cuban loyalist led troops during the Ten Years' War of and again during the Cuban Revolutionary War of He died in Havana on June 17, On the anniversary of his death in , a commemorative plaque was placed in the park.

Esta congregacion hebrea conservadora construyo el Templo Beth Shmuel, y en el se realizan muchos eventos religiosos y tradicionales. El monumento principal es la Antorcha Eterna en Honor a la Brigada Dicha antorcha es un tributo a los hombres que cayeron en la invasion de Bahfa de Cochinos, Cuba en Una ceremonia anual en el aniversario de la invasion recuerda a los combatientes que intentaron derrocar al regimen de Castro.

El segundo monumento es una estatua de bronce de Nestor A. El mapa de bronce de Cuba esta dedicado a "los ideales de aquellos quienes nunca olvidaran el juramento de liberar a la patria. El ultimo monumento es un busto de bronce del General Antonio Maceo. Cubano de Arte yCvltura S. El museo dedica sus esfuerzos a preservar y exhibir el arte y la cultura cubana.

La coleccion permanente del mismo esta constituida por pinturas. W 8th Street Miami FLS Este es el celebre parque de la Pequena Habana donde los miembros del Club de Domino en su mayoria cubanos de edad se reunen diariamente para jugar domino, a edrez, beber cafe cubano. El parque honra al General Maximo Gomez Baez, el dominicano quien r'uera el jefe del ejercito libertador de Cuba. E 27th Street, Miami, FL This Spanish-style plaza, built in , commemorates the early Jesuit missionaries and Spanish explorers that came to evangelize and convert the Tequesta Indians to Christianity in the 16th century.

Many of the priests and explorers were residing in Cuba before coming to the shores of Florida. There are five monuments at the plaza that commemorate the martyrs and heroes of those early missions. For 32 years it served as the home of the Miami Daily News, one of Miami's oldest newspapers. In , the building was renamed in honor of Cuban refugees because it was where nearly , were first processed. Gesu Catholic Church I '40 N. The present building, built in , is one of Miami's oldest churches. Four stories high, it is an ornate, Spanish Colonial Revival style church, one of downtown Miami's few remaining historical landmarks.

Since , when Cubans first arrived in Miami, Gesu Catholic Church has served the Cuban community's religious and humanitarian needs. It was the church where a mass was celebrated for the Bay of Pigs soldiers before they embarked on their invasion of Cuba. Thousands of people came to the mass to show their support and extend good wishes to their heroes. In , the church was listed in the National Register of Historic Places.

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Hialeah Incorporated in , the City of Hialeah is home to Hialeah Park, Florida's famous horse racetrack known for its beautiful gardens and flock of pink flamingos. In the s and 80s, large numbers of Cubans concentrated in Hialeah turning it into a Cuban enclave, complete with Cuban restaurants, grocery stores, bakeries, churches and schools.

It was one of the first cities in Miami to elect a Cuban-born mayor. Today, more than , Cubans live in Hialeah making it one of Miami's most Cuban-populated cities. Historical Museum of Southern Florida W. Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33 Located in beautiful downtown Miami, this museum has year- Florida Cuban Heritage Trail - Lydia Cabrera An ethnologist, artist, historian and writer of folk tales, Cabrera was born in Havana, but developed her interest in Afro-Cuban culture in Paris, where she had gone in 1 to study.

She moved back to Cuba in , and after the Castro revolution fled to Madrid and then to Miami. She wrote 23 books and compiled a dictionary of the Afro- Scholar Cuban Yoruba language. Her best-known work was El Monte, considered the most important book about santeria, a mix of Catholic teachings and native African religions Escritora tnat evolved among former slaves in the Caribbean. Etnologa, escritora, historiadora y artista, Lydia Cabrera nacio en La Habana y desarrollo su interes en to afro-cubano en Paris, donde babia ido a profundizar sus estudios en Regreso a Cuba en abandono el pais luego del triunfo de la revolucion castrista.

Salio rumbo a Madrid para luego pasar a Miami. Escribio 23 libros y compilo un diccionario del idioma yoruba en Cuba. Su libro mas afamado es El Monte, considerado el libro mas importante de la santeria. La santeria, mezda de las religiones africanas y el catolicismo, es una religion sincretka que se desarrollo en el Caribe durante la esclavitud. Muchos de los sacerdotes y exploradores residian en Cuba antes de pasar a la Florida.

La plaza cuenta con cinco monumentos que conmemora a los martires y heroes de estas primeras misiones. Torre delaLibertad Biscayne Boulevard, Miami, FL 33 13 1 Tomando como modelo la Giralda de Sevilla, Espana, este edificio estilo restauracion renacimiento espanol, fue construido en En el edificio cambio de nombre en honor al medio millon de cubanos refugiados en cuyas salas espero el proceso de inmigracion. Con frecuencia se refiere a este edificio como la isla Ellis del sur o la Estatua de la Libertad de los cubanos refugiados. En el edificio fue inscrito en el Registro Nacional de Lugares Historicos.

La iglesia actual, edificada en : de las mas antiguas de Miami. Este omamentado edificio de cuatro pisos pertenece al estilo restauracion colonial espanola y es uno de los pocos edificios historicos que quedan en el centra de Miami. Desde Esta fue la iglesia donde se celebro la misa para los combatientes de Bahia de Cochinos antes de que se embarcaran para invadir a Cuba.

Miles de personas vinieron a la misa para mostrar su apoyo y desearles lo mejor a sus heroes. En la iglesia fue inscrita en el Registro Nacional de Lugares Historicos. HlALEAH La ciudad de Hialeah, incorporada en , es la sede del Hialeah Park, el famoso hipodromo floridano conocido por sus bellos jardines y las bandadas de flamencos rosados. En las decadas de los setenta y ochenta una gran concentracion de cubanos se radico en Hialeah convirtiendola en un enclave cubano con sus restaurantes.

Hialeah fue una de las primera rea del gran Miami en elegir a un alcalde cubano. Hialeah cuenta con mas de , cubanos y es una de las ciudades de la zona a i densidad de poblacion cubana. One of the museum's exhibits, "Tropical Dreams," includes a Cuban raft, a model of Nuestm Senora de Atocha and a life-size reproduction of a sentry tower from Castillo do San Marcos.

The museum's Charlton W Tebeau Library of Florida History is rich with historical photo- graphs, cigar labels, postcards and documents that preserve Cuban heritage in Florida. The museum also sponsors walking tours of Little Havana. Jose Mart! Park S. The park is named after Cuban writer and hero of independence, Jose Marti Near the northern edge of the park is a bust of Marti. Little Havana. West of downtown, between Flagler and S. W 8th Street, lies a 3. This is an area that has been predominantly Hispanic since Cubans first arrived in Miami in Amid the Spanish-style architecture, the vibrant colors and the smell of Cuban coffee, there are exotic fruit stands, Cuban bakeries and casual sidewalk counter cafes where one can sample Cuban delicacies.

There are cigar factories where a passerby can watch cigar workers make traditional hand-rolled cigars.


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For the more adventurous, there are botanicas, shops that sell potions and tools used for Santeria white magic rituals , and a myriad of boutiques where one can purchase guayaberas, traditional men's linen shirts. This is the street that serves as the backdrop to the annual Calle Ocho Carnival Miami streetfest. The week-long festivities climax with a Mardi Gras-type street party that attracts more than a million people each year.

Little Havana's Walk of Fame S. Una de las exhibiciones permanentes del museo, "Suenos Tropicales," esta compuesta de una balsa traida de Cuba, un modelo del navio Nuestra Seiiora dc Alalia y una reproduccion tamano real de una de las garitas del Castillo de San Marcos. La biblioteca de este museo, Charlton W. Tekau, cuenta con excelentes colecciones de fotografias historicas, anillos de tabacos, tarjetas postales y documentos que alimentan la herencia cubana en la Florida.

El museo guarda tambien informacion sobre la Guerra de los Diez Anos y la Guerra de Independencia, ambos conflictos belicos cubanos. El museo tambien auspicia excursiones a pie de la Pequena Habana. Jose Marti S. Este mismo lugar fue morada de los indios tequestas hace mas de dieciseis siglos. El parque lleva el nombre del escritor cubano y heroe de la independencia Jose Marti En la seccion norte del parque se encuentra un busto de Marti.

El mismo fue donado por la Comision Cubana de Turismo a la ciudad de Miami en Esta ha sido una zona predominantenu nti llegada de los cubanos a Miami en El corazon de la Pequena Habana es la Calle Ocho. Entre la arquitectura de estilo espanol. Aqui encontrara fabricas de tabacos donde el visitante podra observar la elaboration de los tabacos enrollados a mano. Para los mas aventureros. Y si necesita ropa nueva pudiera comprarla en una de las muchas tiendas a lo largo de la Calle Ocho. La Calle Ocho sirve de trasfondo al Carnaval de la Calle Ocho que se eelebra todos los anos en esta ciudad.

Las festividades. He attended the Cuban National Conservatory of Music, graduating in 1 91 3. Lecuona left Cuba as an exile in the early 1 s and moved to Tampa and then to Spain. Lecuona is known not only as a great musician and composer, but also as the person who introduced rumba and conga rhythms to North America. Elpianista y compositor de fama mondial, Ernesto Lecuona nacid en Guanabacoa, Cuba el 7 de agosto de Lecuona fue un nino prodigio e hizo su debut a la edad de cinco aftos.

Lecuona asistio al Conservatorio Nacional de Musica, graduandose en Lecuona abandono Cuba a principios de los anos sesenta y paso los primeros anos de exilio en Tampa, siguiendo luego rumbo a Espaha. A Lecuona no solo se conoce por su musica y composiciones sino como tambien por ser la persona que introdujo la rumba y la conga a Norteamerica. George Gershwin, el conocido pianista, asi como otros de fama internacional, fueron admiradores de la musica de Lecuona. Less than three months later, Pan American started the first daily passenger service between Key West and Havana.

Between and , Pan American relocated its base to Dinner Key where it became the nation's busiest commercial seaplane terminal. The first hanger on the base, built in , was a houseboat made in Havana and towed by tugs to Miami. The houseboat, which was anchored to pilings with barges at each end, was the first passenger "terminal" at the Dinner Key Seaplane Base. The permanent terminal, converted into the Miami City Hall in , remains relatively unchanged.

Museum of Cuban Baseball Players S. More than seventy pictures, displayed on the walls of the museum, showcase Cubans who reached the American major leagues. Cubans' favorite pastime goes back to , when American sailors introduced baseball to Cubans on the island. Parallel with the history of baseball is the history of Cuba's integrated society. Afro- Cuban baseball players starred in the Cuban leagues from the onset, while African American baseball players were forced to play in separate leagues in the United States until Our Lady of Charity Shrine S.

Miami Avenue, Miami, FL Built in , this shrine was funded and built by Cuban refugees in honor of Cuba's patroness. The distinctive cone-shaped building symbolizes the mantle of the Virgin Mary and the six columns around the structure represent the six provinces of Cuba. Inside the small shrine is a breathtaking mural, painted by the late Cuban-bom painter, Teok Carrasco. The mural unfolds the history of the Catholic Church in Cuba. The statue of the Virgin Mary that stands before the mural was brought from Cuba in Palm trees surround a bronze map of Cuba, which is uniquely designed with the faces of the patriots embedded into it.

Next to the map is a quote by Jose Marti in large bold letters proclaiming a heartfelt message from the Cuban exile community: ". El avion, un Fokker F-7, fue bautizado con el nombre de General Machado en honor al entonces presidente cubano. Entre y El primer hangar de esta base, construido en , fue un buque casa fabricado en La Habana y remolcado a Miami. Este navio, que fue anclado a unos pilotes y al cual se le colocaron patanas en ambos extremos, fue la primera terminal de pasajeros en la Base de Hidroplanos del Dinner Key.

La terminal permanente, que fue convertida en el Ayuntamiento de Miami en , no ha tenido muchos cambios. Casa di S. Estos articulos datan desde la fundacion de la Liga Profesional Cubana en hasta los peloteros cubano americanos de nuestros dias. En las paredes de dicho museo se exhiben mas de setenta fotografias de peloteros cubanos que alcanzaron las grandes ligas norteamericanas. El beisbol, pasatiempo favorito de los cubanos, se remonta al aho cuando fue introducido a la isla por la tnpulacion de un barco estadounidense.

Desde sus comienzos. Los peloteros afro-americanos tuvieron que jugar en ligas separadas hasta el aho Ermita dp la Caridad del Cobre S. Miami Avenue, Miami, PL 33 Este santuario fue financiado y construido por los refugiados cubanos en en honor a la patrona de Cuba. Este edificio de forma conica simboliza el manto de la Vlrgen Maria y '. Dentro del santuario. It served as the residence and offices of Cuban Consul Domingo Milord until Villa Paula, named for Milord's wife, was designed by Havana architect, C.

Constructed entirely of materials brought from Cuba, Villa Paula reflects the type of building popular in Cuba during this period. Woodlawn Cemetery S. One of the most popular imports that Cubans have brought to Florida is Cuban coffee, cafe cubano. Even non-Cubans have adopted the ritual of drinking this strong, sweet beverage out of paper, plastic or fancy demitasse cups. After all, a tiny shot makes sense in the hot and humid subtropics. Combined with sugar, it is less bitter than espresso and a stimulant far stron- ger than American coffee.

A colada is what an American would consider a regu- lar-sized cup of coffee. But when filled with cafe cubano and accompanied by a stack of little plastic cups, it is meant to be shared with fellow workers or diners. An order for one would be un cafe in Miami, un buche in Key West and un buchito in Tampa. Cafe con leche is actually a full cup of warm milk with cafe cubano added, light clarito or dark obscuro , and served for breakfast with Cuban bread tostada for dunking or for a midnight snack.

A half-sized cafe con leche is called a cortadito. En la misma se puede observar un mapa de bronce de la isla de Cuba rodeado de palmeras. En dicho mapa se hallan esculpidos los rostros de los patriotas cubanos. Al lado del mismo se lee una emotiva cita de Jose Marti en grandes letras al relieve proclamando un sentido mensaje del exilio cubano " La villa sirvio de residencia y oficinas al consul cubano Domingo Milord hasta Villa Paula, que Ueva el nombre de la esposa de Milord, fue disenada por el arquitecto habanero C.

Freira y edificada con materiales traidos de Cuba. Villa Paula refleja el estilo de fabrication popular en Cuba durante ese pen'odo. Esta es una residencia privada. W 8 Street Miami FL Develada en , esta pared de marmol negro nnde tnbuto al "Soldado Desconocido" que cayera en combate durante la invasion de Bahi'a de Cochinos. Una de las mas populares aportaciones de los cubanos a la Florida ha sido el cafe cubano. Muchos norteamericanos han adoptado la costumbre de tomar el cafe en tacitas de papel, de plastico, o en elegante tacitas de cristal.

Despues de todo, tiene sentido una reanimante tacita de cafe en estas tierras casi tropicales cuando el calor y la humedad comienzan a agotar. El cafe con azucar es mucho menos amargo que el espresso y mucho mas estimulante que el cafe americano. La colada es lo que un norteamericano considera una taza normal de cafe. Esta taza de cafe se distribuye a las tacitas plasticas para asi compartir con sus amigos o compaheros de trabajo.

Si le gustara pedir uno, en Miami diga, un cafe, en Cayo Hueso, un buche, y en Tampa, un buchito. El cafe con leche es una taza con leche caliente y un poco de cafe cubano. Segun la cantidad de cafe que le ponga sera claro u obscure Cual sea su guto, es delicioso con pan cubano y mantequilla en el desayuno, o si le entra hambre a media noche. Un cafe con un poquito de leche es lo que se conose como un cortadito. Tampa's Cuban History Hernando de Soto, Governor of Cuba, sailed from the island and landed at Tampa Bay in , thus establishing a connection between Cuba and Florida that would bring thousands of Cuban emigres for the next years.

In , railroad magnate Henry B. Plant revolutionized the transportation and communication systems when he linked Tampa to the rest of Florida with his new railroad. It was about this same time that Vicente Martinez Ybor was looking to relocate his cigar factory due to a decline in the economy and labor unrest in Key West. In , he built the world's largest cigar factory in Tampa helping to transform a swampland into a booming manufacturing community.

By the turn of the century, there were about cigar factories in West Tampa and Ybor City producing more than 1 1 1 million cigars annually. They were among the first to settle in Ybor City, which was originally known as "Cuba Town. The population in Tampa grew rapidly as the cigar industry grew. It is in this unique multicultural enclave where one can still find la Gaceta, the only trilingual newspaper in America. The immigrant communities established mutual aid clubs as a way to preserve their native cultures and traditions. Cubans formed their own club, El Circulo Cubano, which today provides medical services to its members and sponsors cultural and political events.

Although white and black Cubans were initially part of the same club, Florida laws against integrated social clubs required them to separate. Cigar workers pledged a donation of one day's pay every week toward the cause and many even returned to the island to fight alongside Marti during the war of Tampa also became the headquarters for American troops prepar- ing to fight in the Spanish-American War. After the war, many Cubans returned to their homeland but most of the emigres stayed in Ybor City. Today, the descendants of these early settlers are second and third generation Cuban Americans, frequently referred to as Tampenos.

Cubans contributed greatly to the development of Tampa, now a large metropolitan city with a Latin flair. Although Cubans have assimilated into American culture, many still speak their native tongue, celebrate traditional festivals and events and enjoy Cuban cuisine as evidenced by the numerous Cuban restaurants in Tampa. Florida Cuban heritage Trail 1 1. Este hecho JL JL historico establecio el vinculo entre Cuba y la Florida que tendria como consecuencia la inmigracion de miles cubanos en los proximos anos.

En , el magnate ferrocarnlero Henry B. Plant revoluciono los sistemas de transporte y comunicacion cuando conecto a Tampa con el resto de la Florida por medio de su nuevo ferrocarril. Fue por esta misma epoca que Vicente Martinez Ybor se le ocurrio trasladar su fabrica de tabacos de Cayo Hueso debido a la disminucion de la economia y a problemas laborales.

En , Ybor construyo la fabrica de tabacos mas grande de Tampa y con ella ayudo a transformar aquellos terrenos pantanosos en una pujante comunidad manufacturera. A principios de siglo. Estos fueron los primeros en asentarse en Ybor City, la cual se conocio en sus comienzos con el nombre de "Cuba Town. La poblacion de Tampa crecio con rapidez a medida que crecia la industria del tabaco. En este singular enclave multicultural encontramos la Gaceta, el unico penodico publicado en tres ldiomas en los Estados Unidos. Las comunidades de inmigrantes establecieron sociedades de ayuda mutua para mantener sus culturas y tradiciones.

Los espanoles construyeron El Centra Espanol. Los italianos fundaron L'Unione Italiana que hoy en dia es uno de los pocos clubs que aun quedan activos en Ybor City. Los cubanos, por su parte, formaron su propio club. El Circulo Cubano. A pesar que al principio los cubanos negros y blancos formaban parte del mismo club, las leyes segregacionistas de la Florida no permitian la integracion en los clubs y por lo tanto tuvieron que separarse. La Union Marti-Maceo fue establecida en por cubanos negros. Tampa se convirtio en "la cuna de la independencia cubana" donde el patriota jose Marti organizo y respaldo el Partido Revolucionano Cubano.

Los tabacaleros se comprometieron a donar el salano de un dia de trabajo a la semana para la causa revolucionana y muchos regresaron a la isla para luchar al lado de Marti durante la guerra de Tampa fue tambien el cuartel central de las tropas norteamencanas que se preparaban para luchar en la Guerra Hispano-Norteamencana. Despues de la guerra. Hoy dia, los descendientes de estos primeros pobladores son cubano le segunda y tercera generation y se les conoce con el nombre de tampenos. Much like other mutual aid clubs in Tampa, it had a large ballroom, a cantina, a well-stocked library, a gym, and a bowling alley and offered complete medical care for its members.

Although the club was established by Spaniards, many Cubans were also members. During the s, it produced top-notch plays and zarzuelas musical comedies , and hosted some of the finest opera performers in the nation. Today, the club's ballroom is a Latin disco open to the public every weekend. In , it was listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The stained-glass windows as well as the arched brick and marble columns were designed by Cuban and Spanish artisans.

Jose Marti, Theodore Roosevelt, Sir Winston Churchill and other notables were frequent guests at the hotel and restaurant. In , the building was listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Cigar Factories of the Past West Tampa and Ybor City are filled with reminders of the booming cigar industry that shaped these rural communities into thriving municipalities during the late s and early s. Unlike the cigar factories of Key West where one manufacturer is associated with a particular building, most of the factories in West Tampa and Ybor City changed hands rapidly.

Many of the brick cigar factory buildings remain relatively unchanged. The majority of the cigar workers was Cuban but there were many Spaniards and Italians as well. Today, most of these buildings have been converted to other uses. Samuel I. Howard Avenue, Tampa, FL Built around , this building has a unique octagonal tower that was used to house the water tank and sprinkler system for fire prevention. Armenia Avenue, Tampa, FL Built in the early s, this is one of the only factories still manufacturing cigars in Tampa.

Ruperto 1 r0 " e d c '8 ars and Paulina managed a boarding house, while tirelessly working on behalf of a free Cuba. With Marti as a frequent guest, Ruperto slept in the hallway p-atrjnt near the Cuban leader's bedroom, guarding against would-be assassins while Paulina, acting as second mother to Jose Marti, nursed him back to health after his tiring travels throughout Florida.

In 1 91 0, the Pedrosos returned to Cuba where they were honored as heroes of the revolution. Ruperto era tabaquero y Paulina llevaba una casa de huespedes. Paulina fue una incansable luchadora pot la independencia de Cuba. Cuando Marti se quedaba en casa de los Pedroso, Ruperto dormio en el pasillo para proteger al patriota de cualquier atentado, mientras que Paulina lo cuidaba como una segunda madre. Paulina alento a los afro-cubanos y a las mujeres en la lucha contra Espana. En , los Pedroso regresaron a Cuba donde fueron honrados como heroes de la independencia. Al igual que las otras sociedades de ayuda mutua.

Aunque el centra fue establecido por espanoles, muchos cubanos formaban parte del mismo. Durante la decada de , se realizaban zarzuelas de alta categoria y en sus salas actuaron los mejores cantantes de opera del pais. Hoy dia, el salon de baile del centra es una discoteca latina abierta al publico todos los fines de semana. En , fue inscrito en el Registro Nacional de Lugares Histoncos. Fue el segundo edificio de ladnllos en Ybor City.

Los vitrales, asi como el arco de ladrillos y las columnas de marmol fueron disenadas por artesanos cubanos y espanoles. En , el edificio fue inscrito en el Registro Nacional de Lugares Historicos. Fabricas de Tabacos del Ayer West Tampa e Ybor City estan llenas de recuerdos de la epoca del apogeo de la industna tabacalera que transformo a estas comunidades rurales en pujantes municipalidades durante fines y principios de siglo.

En contraste con las tabacaleras de Cayo Hueso donde un fabncante se asocia con un edificio en particular, la mayoria de las fabncas de West Tampa e Ybor City cambiaban de dueno con rapidez. Muchas de las fabncas de tabacos hechas de ladnllo se han mantenido con pocos cambios.

Research Question

La mayoria de los obreros era cubana pero tambien laboraron muchos espanoles e italianos. En la actualidad muchos de estos edificios han sido convertidos para otras usos. Howard Avenue Tampa II Construido alrededor de , este edificio tiene una singular torre octagonal que se utilizaba para deposito de agua y un sistema de riego por aspersion. Albany, West Tampa, FL This building has a unique seven-story water tower with clocks on its four sides.

Presently the building is occupied by the Ybor City Brewing Company. Arturo Fuente Cigar Factory North 22ml Street, Ybor City FL Built in the s, this three-story building is currently used for shipping and warehousing tobacco products and supplies. Cigar Factories of Today: Good quality cigars can be purchased at these small cigar shops that have a few cigar workers on the premises making traditional hand-rolled cigars.

They were originally located on 5th Avenue, just east of 15th Street, and were moved to this location in the mids to be preserved and to create a turn-of- the-century street scene. One of the houses serves as a museum and is open daily to the public. A nominal admission fee is required. The huge two-story restaurant occupies an entire block along Ybor's busiest street, 7th Avenue, known as La Septima.

Albany, West Tampa, FL Este edificio que data de tiene un singular deposito de agua de siete pisos con relojes en sus cuatro caras. Fue construida entre y El edificio actual esta ocupado por la Compania Cervecera de Ybor City. Actualmente se utiliza para almacenamiento y envios de productos del tabaco y abastecimientos. Fabricas de Tabacos df Hoy Dia En estas tabacaleras se pueden comprar tabacos de buena calidad. Las tabacaleras son pequenas y emplean pocos obreros que aun enrollan los tabacos a mano, la forma tradicional.

Estas ejemplifican las tipicas casas donde vivian los obreros durante el apogeo de la industna del tabaco en Ybor City Originalmente, las casas estaban ubicadas en la Avenida 5ta, al este de la Calk 15, y fueron trasladadas a este sitio a mediados de la decada de para asi conservarlas y crear una escena ti'pica de una calle de fines de siglo.

Una de las casas es un museo y esta abierta dianamente al publico. The Columbia can seat up to 1, patrons in its eleven dining rooms, where the atmosphere ranges from elegant dining with flamenco shows to the fast pace of a cafe. Either way, one can enjoy the rich Spanish and Cuban cuisine that has become the trademark of this venerable restaurant. A typical street that is representative of the Cuban community is Columbus Drive, also known as "Boliche Boulevard," named for the classic Cuban dish. This thoroughfare maintains the largest number of Cuban American businesses outside of Dade County.

There are Cuban-style flower shops, grocery stores, bakeries, Cuban restau- rants, cafeterias and even botdnkas, shops that sell potions and tools used in Santeria Afro-Cuban religion rituals. Cuban Civic Club Memorial Highway, Tampa, FL This social and political club was established in the s by Cuban professionals who fled the island after the revolution. The club is housed in an elegant two-story building which includes a dance floor, two bars, an Olympic-sized swimming pool, tennis and volleyball courts and a baseball field.

The club owns a vast collection of rare Cuban books, photographs, magazines, newspa- pers and paintings. Many social, patriotic and cultural events are held at the club, including the annual Fiesta Guajira, a typical country-style Cuban celebration. The organization was first established in as El Club Nacional Cubano and was renamed in remembering Marti's words "this is a true Cuban circle. It also had a gym and a boxing arena for sports aficionados. A cooperative health organization, including a pharmacy and clinic, offered complete medical care for its members: the precursor to today's Health Maintenance Organizations.

Today, the club continues to provide medical services as an HMO clinic and sponsors many social and cultural events. He lived in Cuba for 1 5 years and developed a successful cigar factory there. After working in the cigar industry in Key West and then New York, he set his sites on Tampa as an ideal city to begin again.

Building a company town on the site, Ybor lured over 4, cigar factory workers there with affordable housing and guaranteed long-term employment. This area later became known as Ybor City. Sympathetic to the Cuban cause, he donated a building for Cubans to use as a social and political club. Over the final eleven years of his life he was one of the main forces behind the move of the cigar industry to Ybor City from Key West.

Martinez Ybor nacio en Valencia Espana y emigro a Cuba alos 14 anos. Vivid en Cuba por 15 anos y monto una prospera labrica de tabacos. Luego de trabajar en la industria tabacalera de Cayo Hueso y Nueva York, paso a Tampa, la cual considero un sitio ideal para volver a empezar.

Construyo una comunidad para los obreros y atrajo con sus viviendas asequibles y la garantia de empleo permanente a mas de 4, trabajadores. Esta area se conocio despues con el nombre de Ybor City. Martinez Ybor simpatizaba con la causa cubana y les dono a los cubanos un edificio para que establecieran un centra social y politico, El Liceo. Durante los ultimos once anos de su vida, fue uno de los promotores de mudar la industria tabacalera de Cayo Hueso a Tampa.

El Columbia tiene capacidad para 1, comensales y cuenta con once comedores que van de lo elegante, con tablado flamenco, a un cafetfn. Cualquiera que sea su eleccion aqui se puede saborear la sabrosa cocina espanola y cubana que se han convertido en la marca de distincion de este augusto restaurante.

Una calle representativa de esta comunidad es Columbus Drive, conocida tambien por "Boliche Boulevard," un plato tipico cubano. En Colum- bus Drive se encuentra un gran numero de negocios cubanos. Aqui encontrara florerias, bodegas, panaderias, restaurantes cubanos, cafeterias y botanicas.

Club Civico Cubano Memorial Highway, Tampa, EL Este club social y politico fue establecido a pnncipios de los sesenta por cubanos profesionales que habian abandonado la lsla luego de la revolucion de El club se encuentra en un elegante edificio de dos pisos, y posee pista de baile, dos bares, una piscina olimpica, canchas de tenis y volleyball, y un campo de pelota.

El club tambien guarda una basta coleccion de singulares libros. En el Club Civico se efectuan eventos culturales. La organizacion se establecio en con el nombre de El Club Nacional Cubano. Al igual que otras organizaciones de ayuda mutua. En el teatro se representaban semanalmente piezas del burlesco cubano llamadas "bufos. Este tipo de atencion medica fue precursora de los Health Mainte I n la actualidad El Circulo continua proporcionando servicios medicos en calidad HMOypab ilesy culturales.

During the Christmas season, one of the rooms is decorated with Christmas trimmings using a cigar motif as the dominant feature. Vicente Martinez Ybor donated the wooden tobacco stripping house that was located at this corner as an incentive for Cuban cigar workers to stay in Tampa. Becoming close friends with the Pedrosos, Marti stayed at their house whenever he visited Ybor City. The little wooden house burned down in the late s and the park, developed in the s, pays tribute to the special friendship shared by Marti and the Pedrosos.

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Today, this is the site of many patriotic events. Named for Jose Marti, a white Cuban patriot, and General Antonio Maceo, an Afro-Cuban leader of Cuba's war for independence, the club represents the racial harmony between white and black Cubans. Although black and white Cubans were initially part of the same mutual aid society, Florida laws against integrated social clubs required them to separate in Vc va. El museo. Liberty and Free Cuba, una pintura de la guerra Hispano-Cubana, y otros artefactos historicos.

Durante las navidades, se decora una de estas salas con temas de la mdustria tabacalera. En fue inscnto en el Registro Nacional de Lugares Historicos. El mismo fue un club politico y social fundado por cubanos en Vicente Martinez Ybor dono este local de madera, donde se despalillaba el tabaco. El edificio recibio el nombre de El Liceo Cubano y muchas vcces se le denomina "la cuna de la independencia Cubana. Estos discursos pronunciados el 26 y 27 de noviembre de sirvieron para unir a la comunidad exiliada en Tampa y ayudar en la guerra que luego produciria la independencia de Cuba.

Parqi f Amigos deJose Marti East 8th Avenue, Ybor City, FL Este es el lugar que ocupaba la casa de Ruperto y Paulina Pedroso quienes albergaron a Marti en luego de haberse producido varios atentados contra su vida por parte de elementos pro espaholes. Marti se hizo buen amigo de los Pedroso y se quedaba en su casa cada vez que visitaba Ybor City. La pequeha estructura de madera se quemo a fines de la decada de y el parque. Hoy dia muchos eventos patnoticos se llevan a cabo en este lugar. Se le dio el nombre de dos dirigentes de las Marti, un patriota bianco, y Antonio Maceo, un patriots negro El dub represents la armonla racial en i luba Aunque cubanos negros y blancos formaban parte de la misma sodedad de ayuda mutua, las [eyes segregadoni!

Although its clubhouse was razed as a result of urban renewal in the s, the organization continues to meet. The present clubhouse, a one-story structure with a large banquet hall, has a distinctive tiled mural on the outside wall which pays homage to the club's namesakes, Marti and Maceo. It was declared a National Historic Landmark District in Many of the buildings represent Cuban and Spanish architecture and relate primarily to the cigar industry that brought the area to life in the late nineteenth century.

Ybor City was founded in by Vicente Martinez Ybor as a town for his cigar factory and its workers. By the turn of the century, it had a population of 10, Cubans, Spaniards, Germans and Italians and numerous factories, restaurants, social clubs, stores, homes and hotels. The visitor today can tour Ybor Square, once the largest cigar factory in the world, visit several of the area's magnifi- cent social clubs, dine in a number of ethnic restaurants, and shop in antique and speciality shops.

Ybor City is accessible from on Exit 1. Walking tours are available from Ybor Square. For more information, call Operating as a museum since , it contains a collection of cigar makers' tools and historical exhibits related to Jose Marti, the Cuban Revolutionary Party and the Spanish-American War.

The museum depicts the political, social and cultural influences that shaped Ybor City. It consists of two three-story factories and a two-story warehouse, all interconnected. The two factories have ornate entries represen- tative of Cuban and Spanish architecture. This huge complex occupies an entire block and once employed 4, workers who rolled millions of cigars a year.

During the s and Cuba's struggle for independence, the Ybor factory served as a meeting place for revolutionary activities. It was from the iron steps on the front portico of the factory that Jose Marti delivered one of his most famous speeches to supporters of the movement. Later, the portico was moved to Havana and enshrined. The present portico is a reproduction.

Today, the factory is known as Ybor Square, housing antique shops, restaurants and specialty stores. El mural honra a Marti y a Maceo. En , fue declarado un monumento hi'storico nacional. Muchos de los edificios son representatives de la arquitectura cubana y espanola y se relacionan pnncipalmente con la industria del tabaco que le diera vida a la zona a fines del siglo pasado. Ybor City, fundada en por Vicente Martinez Ybor, tuvo como objectivo albergar a los trabajadores de su fabrica. A principios de siglo, la poblacion ascendia a los El visitante, sin duda, disfrutara un paseo por Ybor Square, que antes fuera la fabrica de tabacos mas grande del mundo, visitar muchos de los interesantes clubs sociales.

El acceso a Ybor City es a traves de la , salida 1. Para mas informacion, llame al Desde el local alberga un museo. El mismo guarda una coleccion de utiles empleados en la elabni, isfcomo muestras historicas relacionadas con jose Marti. El museo verdaderamente representa las influencias socio-politicas y culturales que forjaron Ybor City.

Consistia de 2 fabricas de 3 pisos y un almacen de dos pisos. Lis entradas de las dos fabricas. Este antiguo complejo industrial ocupa una manzana y empleaba a i ajadores que producian millones de tabacos al ano. Durante los y la lucha por la independencia cubana. Fue desde la escalera de hierro. El portico actual es una reproduction.

Literatura cubana: del terruño al universo

However, the island of Cuba and the people who consider it their homeland have had influence on other areas of the state as well. Tallahassee is the site where Hernando de Soto, governor of Cuba, spent the winter of , during his efforts to conquer La Florida for Spain. Twenty-six years later, the first permanent European settlement was established in St. For more than years. Florida's missions and churches were under the authority of the Bishop of Santiago de Cuba. The Castillo de San Marcos in St. Augustine, the oldest stone fort in the United States, was designed by a Cuban engineer and constructed, in part, by Cubans who also served as soldiers there during colonial times.

It was part of an integrated defense system that centered on Havana and provided Spain with protection of its trade routes. Florida was economically subsidized by Spain with a stipend, or situado, that was channeled through Havana and Mexico City. When Florida became a British colony in , the inhabitants of St. Augustine were evacuated to Cuba. Many present-day Cubans are descendants of those early refugees, as well as of the freed blacks and Indians who inhabited Fort Mose, the first free black community in North America.

The cigar industry, primarily located in Tampa and Key West, also spread to other areas in Florida. Ocala, for instance, was the location of Marti City, where several factories manufactured cigars with Cuban tobacco from to the early s. In Jacksonville, there were fifteen cigar factories in , and cigar making was the city's second-largest industry. A number of sites in Florida are important to Cuban Americans because of their connection with Jose Marti and the struggle for Cuban independence from Spain. In his extensive travels to mobilize the exile community, Marti made many friends and allies in Florida.

Napoleon Bonaparte Broward, whose historic home still stands in Jacksonville, was a staunch supporter and even smuggled arms to Cuba to assist in the revolution. He subsequently was elected governor of Florida. Later and throughout Florida's history, Cubans visited and settled in different areas of the state, bringing their industry, contribut- ing their culture and spreading their customs.

A number of historical sites and museums contain evidence of the importance of the Cuban culture to the entire state of Florida. Tampa y el gran Miami. Sin embargo, existen otros sitios en el estado donde la influencia cubana se manifiesta. Durante su empresa de conquistar La Florida, Hernando de Soto, gobernador de Cuba, paso el invierno de en Tallahassee.

Veintiseis anos despues, San Agustin se convirtio en el primer asentamiento europeo en norteamerica. Por mas de anos, las misiones e iglesias de la Florida estuvieron bajo la autoridad eclesiastica del obispo de Santiago de Cuba. El Castillo de San Marcos, en San Agustin, la fortaleza de piedra mas antigua de los Estados Unidos, fue disenada por un ingeniero cubano y construida, en parte, por los soldados venidos de Cuba durante el periodo colonial espanol.

Esta fortaleza formaba parte integral del sistema de defensa que se centraba en La Habana v defendia las rutas comerciales espanolas. Espana economicamente mantenia a la Florida con un "situado" o subsidio proveniente de La Habana y Ciudad Mexico. Cuando la Florida paso a manos inglesas en Hoy dia, hay cubanos que son descendientes de esos refugiados, asi como tambien de los negros libres y los indios que vivi'an en Fort Mose.

Fort Mose fue la primera comunidad de negros libres en Norteamerica. La industria tabacalera, localizada pnncipalmente en Tampa y Cayo Hueso, tambien se extendio a otras zonas del estado. Jackson- ville contaba con 15 Fabricas de tabacos y esta industria era la segunda de la ciudad.

Hay numerosos lugares de interes en la Florida que tienen interes para los cubano americanos por su relacion con Jose Marti v la Guerra de Independencia de Cuba. En sus viajes a la Florida para movilizar a las comunidades en el exiho. Marti hizo muchos amigos en este estado. En Jacksonville, les hablo a los tabacaleros cubanos en la fabnca El Modelo.

Napoleon Bonaparte Broward. Broward llevo armas clan Cuba para ayudar al esfuerzo revolucionano. Its distinct architecture is a unique combination of Greek Revival and Victorian elements which were added to the original vernacular-style structure when the adjoining building was erected in Outside the historic hotel is a marker commemo- rating Jose Marti's week-long stay in February He and his wife donated their vacation homes, a collection of paintings and artifacts to the museum. The art collection, spanning two centuries, contains examples of 18th century Spanish Colonial art, 19th century romanticism and impressionism, folk art and 20th century modernism.

Currently the largest collection of Cuban art in the U. Pierce, FL Cuba was the point of departure of many ships throughout the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries because of its central locality. The Urca de Lima was one of a fleet of Spanish merchant ships that set sail from Havana in en route to Spain.

Patria de Martí Artículos y Ensayos

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